Substance Use in Rural Midwestern Pregnant Women
Barbara P. Yawn, MD, MS;
Roy A. Yawn, MD;
Donald L. Uden, PharmD
Arch Fam Med. 1992;1(1):83-88.
To determine the rate of prenatal use of cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, opiates, and cigarettes in rural midwestern women by analysis of reported use of cigarettes, maternal urine drug screening at admission to labor and delivery, and newborn meconium screening.
The cohort of all women presenting to labor and delivery and their newborns were screened by urine and meconium analysis. Demographic information was also collected and matched to the urine and meconium samples.
Four primary care hospitals in rural Minnesota. Hospitals range in size from 66 to 140 beds, with 400 to 780 deliveries each year.
All women presenting to labor and delivery for evaluation of term or preterm labor between April 4, 1991, and October 4, 1991.
Overall, drugs not administered during labor were found in a mean (±SD) of 3.2%±1.1% of all urine screens. Cannabis was found in 1.2%±0.7% of maternal urine samples, amphetamines in 0.8%±0.58%, opiates in 1.2%±0.7%, and cocaine in 0%±0.3%. Meconium samples were positive in 1.8%±0.9% of cases. Cannabis was found in 1.1%±0.7% of meconium samples, opiates in 0.6%±0.5%, and cocaine in 0.1%±0.1%. No urine samples were positive for more than one drug. One meconium sample tested positive for both cocaine and cannabis. Nearly 4% of patients had either a positive urine specimen or a positive meconium specimen. By history, 24.5% of women admitted to smoking during pregnancy.
The use of cocaine, cannabis, opiates, and amphetamines was uncommon in this rural population. However, one quarter of the women admitted to smoking during pregnancy, exposing their fetuses to a dangerous substance.
From the Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (Dr B. Yawn) and the Minneapolis Childrens' Medical Center (Dr Uden), University of Minnesota, and the Department of Internal Medicine, Olmsted Medical Group, Rochester, Minn (Dr R. Yawn).
THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES
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