To summarize information regarding the frequency, risk factors, clinical characteristics, treatment, and course of metoclopramide hydrochloride—associated tardive dyskinesia obtained from an analysis of 67 case reports.
All the case reports of metoclopramide-associated tardive dyskinesia involving human patients in the literature in English obtained by using Index Medicus and Med-Search. The indexing terms used were as follows: metoclopramide, tardive dyskinesia, dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and extrapyramidal side effects.
For a patient to be included, the main published research criteria had to be met based on the information provided. These criteria included exposure to metoclopramide for at least 30 days before the onset of dyskinesia. Fifty-two patients met these criteria.
One author independently extracted the data.
The incidence and prevalence of tardive dyskinesia associated with metoclopramide have not been well studied. The mean (±SD) length of treatment with metoclopramide before the onset of symptoms was 20±15 months. The most common location of the dyskinetic movements was the face (28 [60%] of 47) followed by the tongue (21 [45%] of 47). In 15 (71%) of 21 patients on whom long-term follow-up was provided, the symptoms were still present 6 months or more after discontinuation of metoclopramide.
Persistent tardive dyskinesia is a serious potential side effect associated with metoclopramide treatment.