Arch Fam Med
Institution: CLOCKSS  | My Account | E-mail Alerts | Access Rights | Sign In
  Vol. 4 No. 5, May 1995 TABLE OF CONTENTS
  •  Online Features
  Clinical Reviews
 This Article
 •Full text PDF
 •Send to a friend
 • Save in My Folder
 •Save to citation manager
 Citing Articles
 •Citation map
 •Contact me when this article is cited
 Related Content
 •Similar articles in this journal


Benjamin Liptzin, MD

Arch Fam Med. 1995;4(5):453-458.

Article references have been provided for searching and linking. Additional reference information may be available in the article PDF.

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
2. Miller NE, Lipowski ZJ, Lebowitz BD, eds. Delirium: advances in research and clinical practice. Int Psychogeriat. 1991;3:97-414.
3. Lipowski ZJ. Delirium: Acute Confusional States. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1990.
4. Lipowski ZJ. Transient cognitive disorders (delirium, acute confusional states) in the elderly. Am J Psychiatry. 1983;140:1426-1436. FREE FULL TEXT
5. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1952.
6. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Second Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1968.
7. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1980.
8. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1987.
9. Frances AJ, Widiger TA, Pincus HA. The development of DSM-IV. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46:373-375. FREE FULL TEXT
10. Liptzin B, Levkoff SE, Gottlieb GL, Johnson JC. Delirium. In: Widiger TA, Frances AJ, Pincus HA, et al. DSM-IV Sourcebook. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
11. Liptzin B, Levkoff SE, Cleary PD, et al. An empirical study of diagnostic criteria for delirium. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:454-457. FREE FULL TEXT
12. Liptzin B, Levkoff SE, Gottlieb G, et al. Delirium. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993;5:154-160. FREE FULL TEXT
13. Levkoff SE, Cleary PD, Liptzin B, et al. Epidemiology of delirium: an overview of research issues and findings. Int Psychogeriatr. 1991;3:149-167. PUBMED
14. Jitapunkul S, Pillay I, Ebrahim S. Delirium in newly admitted elderly patients: a prospective study. Q J Med New Ser. 1992;83:307-314.
15. Kolbeinsson H, Jonsson A. Delirium and dementia in acute medical admissions of elderly patients in Iceland. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1993;87:123-127. PUBMED
16. Folstein MF, Bassett SS, Romanoski AJ, et al. The epidemiology of delirium in the community: the eastern Baltimore mental health survey. Int Psychogeriatr. 1991;3:169-176. PUBMED
17. Trzepacz PT, Teague GB, Lipowski ZJ. Delirium and other organic mental disorders in a general hospital. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1985;7:101-106. PUBMED
18. Levkoff SE, Safran C, Cleary PD, et al. Identification of factros associated with the diagnosis of delirium in elderly hospitalized patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1988;36:1099-1104. PUBMED
19. Foreman MD. Confusion in the hospitalized elderly: incidence, onset, and associated factors. Res Nurs Health. 1989;12:21-29. PUBMED
20. Rockwood K. Acute confusion in elderly medical patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1989;37:150-154. PUBMED
21. Trzepacz PT, Brenner R, Van Thiel DH. A psychiatric study of 247 liver transplantation candidates. Psychosomatics. 1989;2:147-153.
22. Francis J, Martin D, Kapoor WN. A prospective study of delirium in hospitalized elderly. JAMA. 1990;263:1097-1101. FREE FULL TEXT
23. Levkoff SE, Evans DA, Liptzin B, et al. Delirium: the occurrence and persistence of symptoms among elderly hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:334-340. FREE FULL TEXT
24. Schor JD, Levkoff SE, Lipsitz LA, et al. Risk factors for delirium in hospitalized elderly. JAMA. 1992;267:827-831. FREE FULL TEXT
25. Inouye SK, Viscoli CM, Horwitz RI, et al. A predictive model for delirium in hospitalized elderly medical patients based on admission characteristics. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:474-481. FREE FULL TEXT
26. Marcantonio ER, Goldman L, Mangione CM, et al. A clinical prediction rule for delirium after elective noncardiac surgery. JAMA. 1994;271:134-139. FREE FULL TEXT
27. Beresin EV. Delirium in the elderly. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1988;1:127-143. FREE FULL TEXT
28. Bowman AM. The relationship of anxiety to development of postoperative delirium. J Gerontol Nurs. 1992;1:24-30.
29. Rabins PV, Folstein MF. Delirium and dementia: diagnostic criteria and fatality rates. Br J Psychiatry. 1982;140:149-153. FREE FULL TEXT
30. Thomas RI, Cameron DJ, Fahs Mc. A prospective study of delirium and prolonged hospital stay: exploratory study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45:937-940. FREE FULL TEXT
31. Koponen H, Stenback U, Mattila E, et al. Delirium among elderly persons admitted to a psychiatric hospital: clinical course during the acute stage and one-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1989;79:579-585. PUBMED
32. Francis J, Kapoor WN. Prognosis after hospital discharge of older medical patients with delirium. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40:601-606. PUBMED
33. Rockwood K. Delays in the discharge of elderly patients. J Clin Epidemiol. 1990;43:971-975. PUBMED
34. Rockwood K. The occurrence and duration of symptoms in elderly patients with delirium. J Gerontol. 1993;48:M162-M166. ABSTRACT
35. Murray AM, Levkoff SE, Wetle TT, et al. Acute delirium and functional decline in the hospitalized elderly patient. J Gerontol. 1993;48:M181-M186. PUBMED
36. Levkoff SE, Liptzin B, Evans DA, et al. Progression and resolution of delirium in elderly patients hospitalized for acute care. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1994;2:230-238.
37. Engel GL, Romano J, Ferris EB, et al. A simple method of determining frequency spectrums in the electroencephalogram: observations on effects of physiological variations in glucose, Oxygen, posture, and acid-base balbance on the normal electroencephalogram. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1944;51:134-146. FREE FULL TEXT
38. Romano J, Engel GL. Delirium, I: electroencephalographic data. Arch Neurol psychiatry. 1944;51:356-377. FREE FULL TEXT
39. Engel GL, Romano J. Delirium, II: reversibility of the electroencephalogram with experimental procedures. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1944;51:378-392. FREE FULL TEXT
40. Engel GL, Rosenbaum M. Delirium, III: electroencephalographic changes associated with acute alcohol intoxication. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1945;53:44-50. FREE FULL TEXT
41. Engel GL, Webb JP, Ferris EB. Quantitative electroencephalographic studies of anoxia in humans: comparison with acute alcoholic intoxication and hypoglycemia. J Clin Invest. 1945;24:691-697. PUBMED
42. Brenner RP. Utility of EEG in delirium: past views and current practice. Int Psychogeriatr. 1991;3:211-229. PUBMED
43. Pro JD, Wells CE. The use of the electroencephalogram in the diagnosis of delirium. Dis Nerv Syst. 1977;38:804-808. PUBMED
44. Trzepacz PT, Sclabassi RJ, Van Thiel DH. Delirium: a subcortical phenomenon? J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1989;3:283-290.
45. Koponen H, Partanen J, Paakonen A, et al. EEG spectral analyisis in delirium. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989;52:980-985. FREE FULL TEXT
46. Jacobson SA, Leuchter AF, Walter DO, et al. Serial quantitative EEG among elderly subjects with delirium. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;34:135-140. PUBMED
47. Leuchter AF, Daly KA, Rosenberg-Thompson S, et al. Prevalence and significance of electroencephalographic abnormalities with suspected organic mental syndromes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1993;41:605-611. PUBMED
48. Blass JP, Plum F. Metabolic encephalopathies in older adults. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, eds. The Neurology of Aging. Philadelphia, Pa: FA Davis Co Publishers; 1983:189-220.
49. Itil T, Fink M. Anticholinergic drug-induced delirium: experimental modification, quantitative EEG and behavioral correlations. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1966;6:492-507.
50. Tune LE, Bylsma FW. Benzodiazepine-induced and anticholinergic-induced delirium. Int Psychogeriatr. 1991;3:397-408. PUBMED
51. Tune L, Carr S, Cooper T, Klug B, Golinger RC. Association of anticholinergic activity of prescribed medications with postoperative delirium. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993;5:208-210. FREE FULL TEXT
52. Heiser JF, Gillin Jc. The reversal of anticholinergic drug-induced delirium and coma with physostigmine. Am J Psychiatry. 1971;127:1050-1054. FREE FULL TEXT
53. Koponen H, Stenback U, Mattila E, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid somatostatin in delirium. Psychol Med. 1989;19:605-609. PUBMED
54. Koponen H, Reinkainen K, Riekkinen PJ. Cerebrospinal fluid somatostatin in delirium, II: changes at the acute stage and at one year follow-up. Psychol Med. 1990;20:501-505. PUBMED
55. Koponen H, Stenback U, Mattila E, et al. CSF Betaendorphin^like immunoreactivity in delirium. Biol Psychiatry. 1989;25:938-944. PUBMED
56. Koponen H, Riekkinen P. A longitudinal study of cerebrospinal fluid beta-endorphin^like immunoreactivity in delirium: changes at the acute stage and at one-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1990;82:323-326. PUBMED
57. van der Mast RC, Fekkes D, Moleman P, Pepplinkhuizen L. Is postoperative delirium related to reduced plasma tryptophan? Lancet. 1991;338:851-852. PUBMED
58. Ross CA. CNS arousal systems: possible role in delirium. Int Psychogeriatr. 1991;3:353-371. PUBMED
59. Figiel GS, Krishnan KRR, Breitner JC, et al. Radiologic correlates of antidepressant-induced delirium: the possible significance of basalganglia lesions. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1989;2:188-190.
60. Figiel GS, Krishnan KRR, Doraiswamy PM. Subcortical structural changes in ECT-induced delirium. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1990;3:172-176. FREE FULL TEXT
61. Figiel GS, Coffey CE, Djang WT, et al. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in ECT-induced delirium. J Neuropsychiatry. 1990;1:53-58.
62. Mori E, Yamadori A. Acute confusional state and acute agitated delirium: occurence after infarction in right middle crebral artery territory. Arch Neurol. 1987;44:1139-1143. FREE FULL TEXT
63. Koponen H, Hurri L, Stenback U, et al. Computed tomography findings in delirium. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1989;4:226-231.
64. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR, et al. Mini-Mental State: a practical guide for grading the cognitive status of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12:189-198. PUBMED
65. Trzepacz PT, Baker RW, Greenhouse J. A symptom rating scale for delirium. Psychiatry Res. 1988;23:89-97. PUBMED
66. Inouye SK, vanDyck CH, Alessi CA, et al. Clarifying confusion: the Confusion Assessment Method: a new method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113:941-948. FREE FULL TEXT
67. Albert MS, Levkoff SE, Reilly CH, et al. The Delirium Symptom Interview: an interview for the detection of delirium in hospitalized patients. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1992;5:14-21. PUBMED
68. Dickson LR. Hypoalbuminemia in delirium. Psychosomatics. 1991;32:317-323. FREE FULL TEXT
69. Liptzin B. Delirium. In: Rakel RE, ed. Conn's Current Therapy. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1991.
70. Rockwood K, Cosway S, Stolee P, et al. Increasing the recognition of delirium in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994;42:252-256. PUBMED
71. Adams RD, Victor M. Principles of Neurology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill International Book Co; 1981.
72. Ross CA, Peyser CE, Shapiro I, Folstein MF. Delirium: Phenomenologic and etkologic subtypes. Int Psychogeriatr. 1991;3:135-147. PUBMED
73. Liptzin B, Levkoff S. An empirical study of delirium subtypes. Br J Psychiatry. 1992:161:843-845. FREE FULL TEXT
74. Edmonds HL, Griffiths LK, van der Laken J, Slater AD, Shields CB. Quantitative electroencephalographic monitoring during myocardial revascularization predicts postoperative disorientation and improves outcome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;103:555-563. ABSTRACT
75. Williams MA, Campbell EB, Raynor WJ, et al. Reducing acute confusional states in elderly patients with hip fractures. Res Nurs Health. 1985;8:329-337. PUBMED