TABLE 3. Factors Associated with Levels of Vicarious or Secondary Trauma
Variable

IES Intrusion

IES Avoidance

IES Total


Age 
r = –.06 
r = –.18^{**} 
r = –.14^{*} 
Total hours per week counseling 
r = .32^{**} 
r = .15^{*} 
r = .25^{**} 
Hours per week counseling trauma victims 
r = .34^{**} 
r = .24^{**} 
r = .31^{**} 
Counseling wife assault victims 
t = –3.11^{**} 
t = –2.31^{**} 
t = –2.92^{**} 
Counseling child abuse victims 
t = –2.92^{**} 
t = 2.30^{**} 
t = –.2.75^{**} 
Counseling child sexual abuse victims 
t = –3.65^{**} 
t = –3.12^{**} 
t = –3.78^{**} 
Counseling sexual assault victims 
t = –3.70^{**} 
t = –1.96^{*} 
t = –3.01^{**} 
Counseling torture victims 
t = –2.33^{*} 
t = –2.57^{**} 
t = –2.62^{**} 
Receiving personal therapy

t = –2.15^{*}

t = –2.38^{*}

t = –2.34^{*}


Note. Scores on the Impact of Event Scale (IES).
^{*} p .05.
^{**} p .01.