Arch Fam Med
Institution: STANFORD Univ Med Center  | My Account | E-mail Alerts | Access Rights | Sign In
  Vol. 2 No. 10, October 1993 TABLE OF CONTENTS
  •  Online Features
  Clinical Review
 This Article
 •Full text PDF
 •Send to a friend
 • Save in My Folder
 •Save to citation manager
 Citing Articles
 •Citation map
 •Contact me when this article is cited
 Related Content
 •Similar articles in this journal

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome— A Review and Update

History, Characteristics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Its Replication, Biologic Factors, and Pathogenicity

Nona W. Fox, PhD; Carole P. McArthur, MD, PhD

Arch Fam Med. 1993;2(10):1068-1077.

Article references have been provided for searching and linking. Additional reference information may be available in the article PDF.

1. Huminer D, Rosenfeld UR, Pitlik SD. AIDS in the pre-AIDS era. Rev Infect Dis. 1987;9:1102-1108. PUBMED
2. Centers for Disease Control. Pneumocystis pneumonia: Los Angeles. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1981;30:250-252. PUBMED
3. Centers for Disease Control. Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men: New York City and California. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1981;30:305-308. PUBMED
4. Centers for Disease Control. Follow-up on Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1981;30:409-410. PUBMED
5. Masur H, Michelis MA, Greene JV, et al. An outbreak of community-acquired Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: initial manifestations of cellular immune dysfunction. N Engl J Med. 1981;305:1431-1438. ABSTRACT
6. Siegal FP, Lopez C, Hammer GS, et al. Severe acquired immunodeficiency in male homosexuals manifested by chronic perianal ulcerative herpes simplex lesions. N Engl J Med. 1981;305:1439-1444. ABSTRACT
7. Curran JW, Lawrence DN, Jaffe H. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated with transfusions. N Engl J Med. 1984;310:69-75. ABSTRACT
8. Centers for Disease Control. Opportunistic infections among Haitians in the United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1982;31:353-360. PUBMED
9. Evatt BL, Ramsley RB, Lawrence DN, Zyla LD, Curran JW. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in patients with hemophilia. Ann Intern Med. 1984;100:499-504. FREE FULL TEXT
10. Ho DD, Schooley RT, Rota TR, et al. Isolation of human T-lymphotropic virus-III from semen and blood of a healthy homosexual man. Science. 1984;226:451-453. FREE FULL TEXT
11. Zagury D, Bernard J, Liebowitch J, et al. HTLVIII in cells cultured from semen of two patients with AIDS. Science. 1984;226:449-451. FREE FULL TEXT
12. Ziegler JB, Cooper DA, Johnson RO, Gold J. Postnatal transmission of AIDS-associated retrovirus from mother to infant. Lancet. 1985;1:896-898. PUBMED
13. Lapointe N, Michend J, Pekovic D, Chausseau JP, DuPuy JM. Transplacental transmission of HTLV-III virus. N Engl J Med. 1985;312:1325-1326. PUBMED
14. Wofsy CB, Cohen JB, Hauer LB, et al. Isolation of AIDS-associated retrovirus from genital secretions of women with antibodies to the virus. Lancet. 1986;1:527-529. PUBMED
15. Vogt MW, Witt DJ, Craven DE, et al. Isolation patterns of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from cervical secretions during the menstrual cycle of women at risk for AIDS. Ann Intern Med. 1987;106:380-382. FREE FULL TEXT
16. Khabbaz RF, Darrow WW, Hartley TM, et al. Seroprevalence and risk factors for HTLV-I/II infection among female prostitutes in the United States. JAMA. 1990;263:60-64. FREE FULL TEXT
17. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for AIDS. Science. 1983;220:868-871. FREE FULL TEXT
18. Popovic M, Sarngadharan MG, Read E, Gallo RC. Detection, isolation, and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS. Science. 1984;224:497-500. FREE FULL TEXT
19. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M, et al. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science. 1984;224:500-503. FREE FULL TEXT
20. Sarngadharan M, Popovic M, Bruch L, Schupbach J, Gallo RC. Antibodies reactive with human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-III) in the serum of patients with AIDS. Science. 1984;224:506-508. FREE FULL TEXT
21. Gallo RC. The AIDS virus. Sci Am. 1987;256:46-56. PUBMED
22. Palca J. Verdicts are in on the Gallo probe. Science. 1992;256:735-738. FREE FULL TEXT
23. Clavel F, Guetard D, Brun-Vezinet F, et al. Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients with AIDS. Science. 1987;233:353-346.
24. Greenberg P. Immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. Hosp Pract. 1992;27:109-124.
25. Teich N. Taxonomy of retroviruses. In: Weiss R, Teich N, Varmus H, Coffin J, eds. RNA Tumor Viruses. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; 1982:27-207.
26. Dalgleish A, Beverly P, Clapham P, Crawford DH, Greaves MF, Weiss RA. The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. Nature. 1984;312:763-766. PUBMED
27. Cullen BR. Mechanism of action of regulatory proteins encoded by complex retroviruses. Microbiol Rev. 1992;56:375-394. FREE FULL TEXT
28. Stevenson M, Bukrinsky M, Haggerty S. HIV-1 replication and potential targets for intervention. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992;8:107-117. PUBMED
29. Klatzmann D, Champagne E, Chamaret S, et al. T-lymphocyte T4 molecule behaves as the receptor for human retrovirus LAV. Nature. 1984;312:767-768. PUBMED
30. Maddon PJ, Dalgleish AG, McDougal JS, Clapham PR, Weiss RA, Axel R. The T4 gene encodes the AIDS virus receptor and is expressed in the immune system and the brain. Cell. 1986;47:333-348. PUBMED
31. Bedinger P, Moriarity A, von Borstle RC, Donovan NT, Steimer KS, Littman DR. Internalization of the human immunodeficiency virus does not require the cytoplasmic domain of CD4. Nature. 1988;334:162-165. PUBMED
32. Maddon PJ, McDougal JS, Clapham PR. HIV infection does not require endocytosis of its receptor, CD4. Cell. 1988;54:865-874. PUBMED
33. Stein BS, Gowda SD, Lifson JD, Pennhallow RC, Bensch KG, Engelman EG. Ph-independent HIV entry into CD4-positive T cells via virus envelope fusion to the plasma membrane. Cell. 1987;49:659-668. PUBMED
34. Landau NR, Warton M, Littman DR. The envelope glycoprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus binds to the immunoglobulin-like domain of CD4. Nature. 1988;334:159-162. PUBMED
35. Lasky LA, Nakamura G, Smith DH, et al. Delineation of a region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 glycoprotein critical for interaction with the CD4 receptor. Cell. 1987;50:975-985. PUBMED
36. Smith DH, Bym RA, Masters SA, Gregory T, Groopman JE, Capon DJ. Blocking of HIV-1 infectivity by a soluble, secreted form of the CD4 antigen. Science. 1987;228:1704-1707.
37. Fisher RA, Bertonis JM, Meier W, et al. HIV infection is blocked in vitro by recombinant soluble CD4. Nature. 1988;331:76-78. PUBMED
38. Hussey RE, Richardson NE, Kowalski M, et al. A soluble CD4 protein selectively inhibits HIV replication and syncitium formation. Nature. 1988;331:78-81. PUBMED
39. Deen KC, McDougal JS, Macker R, et al. A soluble form of CD4 (T4) protein inhibits AIDS virus infection. Nature. 1988;331:82-84. PUBMED
40. Traunecker A, Lüke W, Karjalainen K. Soluble CD4 molecules neutralize human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Nature. 1988;331:84-86. PUBMED
41. Manca F, Habeshaw JA, Dalgleish AC. HIV envelope glycoprotein, antigen-specific T-cell responses, and soluble CD4. Lancet. 1990;335:811-815. PUBMED
42. Wong-Staal F. The AIDS virus: what we know and what we can do about it. West J Med. 1991;155:481-487. PUBMED
43. Wells KH, Poiesa BJ. Biology of retroviruses: detection, molecular biology, and treatment of retroviral infection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:1175-1195. PUBMED
44. Nabel G, Baltimore D. An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cells. Nature. 1987;326:711-713. PUBMED
45. Lusso R, Ensoli B, Markham PD, et al. Productive dual infection of human CD4+ T lymphocytes by HIV-1 and HHV-6 (HBLV). Nature. 1989;335:370-373.
46. Feng S, Holland ED. HIV-1 tat-transactivation requires the loop sequence with tar. Nature. 1988;334:165-167. PUBMED
47. Palca J. CDC closes the case of the Florida dentist. Science. 1992;256:1130-1131. FREE FULL TEXT
48. Ratner L, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F. HTLV-III, LAV, ARV are variants of same AIDS virus. Nature. 1985;313:636-637.
49. Starcich B, Hahn BH, Shaw GM, et al. Identification and characterization of conserved and variable sequences in the envelope of HTLVIII/LAV, the retrovirus of AIDS. Cell. 1986;45:637-648. PUBMED
50. Looney DJ, Fisher AG, Putney SD, et al. Typerestricted neutralization of molecular clones of human immunodeficiency virus. Science. 1988;241:357-359. FREE FULL TEXT
51. Higgins PJ, Paradis T, Potts BJ, White-Scharf ME, Rusche JR, Scott CF. In vitro inhibition of a variety of human immunodeficiency virus isolates by a broadly reactive V3-directed heterconjugate antibody. J Infect Dis. 1992;166:198-202. PUBMED
52. Resnick L, Veren K, Salahuddin SZ, Tondreau S, Markham PD. Stability and inactivation of HTLV-III/LAV under clinical and laboratory environments. JAMA. 1986;255:1887-1891. FREE FULL TEXT
53. Daar ES, Moudgil T, Meyer RD, Ho DD. Transient high levels of viremia in patients with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:961-964. ABSTRACT
54. Schnittman SM, Greenhouse JJ, Psallidopoulous MC, et al. Increasing viral burden in CD4+ T cells from patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection reflects rapidly progressive immunosuppression and clinical disease. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113:438-443. FREE FULL TEXT
55. Bankowski MJ, Landay AL, Staes B, et al. Postmortem recovery of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from plasma and mononuclear cells: implications for occupational exposure. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1992;116:1124-1127. PUBMED
56. Nyberg M, Suni J, Haltia M. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at autopsy one to six days postmortem. Am J Clin Pathol. 1990;94:422-425. PUBMED
57. Spire B, Barre-Sinoussi F, Montagnier L, Chermann JC. Inactivation of lymphadenopathy associated virus by chemical disinfectants. Lancet. 1984;2:899-901. PUBMED
58. Mackewicz C, Levy JA. CD8+ cell anti-HIV activity: nonlytic suppression of virus replication. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992;8:1039-1050. PUBMED
59. Redfield RR, Birx DL. HIV-specific vaccine therapy: concepts, status, and future directions. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992;8:1051-1058. PUBMED
60. Montagnier L, Gruest J, Chamaret S, et al. Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines. Science. 1984;225:63-66. FREE FULL TEXT
61. Rappersberger K, Gartner S, Schenk P, et al. Langerhans' cells are an actual site of HIV-1 replication. Intervirology. 1988;29:185-194. PUBMED
62. Tschachler E, Groh V, Popovic M, et al. Epidermal Langerhans' cells: a target for HTLVIII/LAV infection. J Invest Dermatol. 1988;88:233-237.
63. Dewhurst S, Sakai K, Bresser J, Stevenson M, Evinger-Hodges MJ, Volsky DJ. Persistent productive infection of human glial cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and by infectious molecular clones of HIV. J Virol. 1987;61:3774-3782. FREE FULL TEXT
64. Adachi A, Koenig S, Gendelman HE, et al. Productive, persistent infection of human colorectal cell lines with human immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 1987;61:209-213. FREE FULL TEXT
65. Tateno M, Gonzalez-Scarano F, Levy JA. The human immunodeficiency virus can infect CD4-negative human fibroblastoid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:4287-4290. FREE FULL TEXT
66. Asjo B, Morfeldt-Marson L, Albert J, et al. Replicative capacity of human immunodeficiency virus from patients with varying severity of HIV infection. Lancet. 1986;2:660-662. PUBMED
67. Evans LA, McHugh TM, Stites DP, Levy JA. Differential ability of human immunodeficiency virus isolates to productively infect human cells. J Immunol. 1987;138:3415-3418. ABSTRACT
68. Hoxie JA, Haggarty BS, Rackowski JL, Pillsbury N, Levy JA. Persistent noncytopathic infection of normal human T lymphocytes with AIDS-associated retrovirus. Science. 1985;229:1400-1402. FREE FULL TEXT
69. Escaich S, Ritter J, Rougier P, et al. Plasma viremia as a marker of viral replication in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 1991;5:1189-1194. PUBMED
70. Valentin A, Von-Gegerfelt A, Matsuda S, Nilsson K, Asjo B. In vitro maturation of mononuclear phagocytes and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991;4:751-759. PUBMED
71. Yamada O, Matsumoto T, Sasoaka R, Kurimura T. Variations in growth capacity of HIV in peripheral blood mononuclear cell preparations from different individuals. AIDS. 1990;4:35-40. PUBMED
72. Bednarik DP, Folks TM. Mechanisms of HIV-1 latency. AIDS. 1992;6:3-16. PUBMED
73. Garcia-Blanco MA, Cullen BR. Molecular basis of latency in pathogenic human viruses. Science. 1991;254:815-820. FREE FULL TEXT
74. McClure MO, Sattentau QJ, Beverly PCL, et al. HIV infection of primate lymphocytes and conservation of the CD4 receptor. Nature. 1987;330:487-489. PUBMED
75. Clemetson DBA, Moss GB, Willerford DM, et al. Detection of HIV DNA in cervical and vaginal secretions. JAMA. 1993;269:2860-2864. FREE FULL TEXT
76. Holmberg SD, Horsburgh CR Jr, Ward JW, Jaffe HW. Biologic factors in the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis. 1989;160:116-125. PUBMED
77. Ward JW, Deppe DA, Samson S. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection from blood donors who later developed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1987;106:61-62. FREE FULL TEXT
78. Gerberding JL, Bryant-LeBlanc CE, Nelson K, et al. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis B virus transmission to health care workers exposed to patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related conditions. J Infect Dis. 1987;156:1-8. PUBMED
79. McCray E and the Cooperative Needle-stick Surveillance Group. Occupational risk of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among health care workers. N Engl J Med. 1986;314:1127-1132. ABSTRACT
80. Ziegler JB, Steward GJ, Penny R, Stucky M, Good S. Breast feeding and transmission of HIV from mother to infant. Presented at the Fourth International Conference on AIDS, Book 1; June 12-16, 1988; Stockholm, Sweden. Abstract.
81. Report of a Consensus Workshop, Siena, Italy, January 17-18, 1992: maternal factors involved in mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1019-1029. PUBMED
82. St Louis ME, Munkolenkile K, Brown C, et al. Risk for perinatal HIV-1 transmission according to maternal immunologic, virologic, and placental factors. JAMA. 1993;269:2853-2859. FREE FULL TEXT
83. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1992;41:1-19. PUBMED
84. Archibald DW, Cole GA. In vitro inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity by human salivas. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1990;6:1425-1432. PUBMED
85. Skolnik P, Kosloff B, Bechtel L, et al. Absence of infectious HIV-1 in the urine of seropositive viremic subjects. J Infect Dis. 1989;160:1056-1060. PUBMED
86. Castro KG, Lieb S, Jaffe HW, et al. Transmission of HIV in Belle Glade, Florida: lessons for other communities in the United States. Science. 1988;239:193-197. FREE FULL TEXT
87. Friedland GH, Saltzman BR, Rogers MF, et al. Lack of transmission of HTLV-III/LAV infection to household contacts of patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex with oral candidiasis. N Engl J Med. 1986;314:344-349. ABSTRACT
88. Fauci AS. The human immunodeficiency virus: infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenesis. Science. 1988;239:617-622. FREE FULL TEXT
89. Ho DD, Pomerantz RJ, Kaplan JC. Pathogenesis of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:278-286. PUBMED
90. Levy JA. Mysteries of HIV: challenges for therapy and prevention. Nature. 1988;333:519-522. PUBMED
91. Calabrese LH. Autoimmune manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Clin Lab Med. 1988;8:269-279. PUBMED
92. Ratner L. Human immunodeficiency virusassociated autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura: a review. Am J Med. 1989;86:194-198. PUBMED
93. Weiss RA, Clapham PR, Cheingsong-Popov R, et al. Neutralization of human T-lymphotropic virus type III by sera of AIDS and AIDS-risk patients. Nature. 1985;316:69-72. PUBMED
94. Spear GT, Landay AL, Sullivan BL, Dittel B, Lint TF. Activation of complement on the surface of cells infected by human immunodeficiency virus. J Immunol. 1990;144:1490-1496. ABSTRACT
95. Walker BD, Flexner C, Paradis TJ, et al. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is a target for cytotoxic T lymphocytes in infected individuals. Science. 1988;240:64-66. FREE FULL TEXT
96. Cohen J. What are the correlates of protection? Science. 1993;260:1259. PUBMED
97. Kahn JO, Lagakos SW, Richman DD, et al. A controlled trial comparing continued idovudine with didanosine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:581-587. ABSTRACT
98. Pederson C, Sandstrom E, Peterson CS, et al. The efficacy of inosine pranobex in preventing the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:1757-1763. ABSTRACT
99. Hersh EM, Brewton G, Abrams D, et al. Ditiocarb sodium (diethyldithiocarbamate) therapy in patients with symptomatic HIV infection and AIDS: a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, multicenter study. JAMA. 1991;265:1538-1544. FREE FULL TEXT
100. Groopman JE. Antiretroviral therapy and immunomodulators in patients with AIDS. Am J Med. 1991;90(suppl_4A):18S-21S. PUBMED
101. Yarchoan R, Mitsya H, Broder S. The immunology of HIV infection: implications for therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992;8:1023-1031. PUBMED
102. Richman DD, Fischl MA, Grieco MH, et al. The toxicity of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of AIDS and AIDS-related complexes: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:192-197. ABSTRACT
103. Merigan TC. Treatment of AIDS with combinations of antiretroviral agents. Am J Med. 1991;90(suppl 4A):8S-17S. PUBMED
104. Lane HC, Kovacs JA, Feinberg J, et al. Antiretroviral effects of interferon-{alpha} in AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet. 1988;2:1218-1222. PUBMED
105. Lane HC, Davey V, Kovacs JA. Interferon-{alpha} in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:805-811. FREE FULL TEXT
106. DeWit R, Schattenkerk JKME, Boucher CAB, Bakker PJM, Veenhof KHN, Danner SA. Clinical and virologic effects of high-dose recombinant interferon-{alpha} in disseminated AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet. 1988;2:1214-1217. PUBMED
107. Hartshorn KL, Vogt MW, Chou TC, et al. Synergistic inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus in vitro by azidothymidine and recombinant alpha A interferon. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987;31:168-172. FREE FULL TEXT
108. Kovacs JA, Deyton L, Davey R, et al. Combined zidovudine and interferon-{alpha} therapy in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:280-287. PUBMED
109. Krown SE, Gold JWM, Niedzwiecki D, et al. Interferon-{alpha} with zidovudine: safety, tolerance, and clinical and virologic effects in patients with Kaposi sarcoma associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:812-821. FREE FULL TEXT
110. Skowron G, Merigan TC. Alternating and intermittent regimens of zidovudine (3'azido-3'-deoxythymidine) and dideoxycytidine (2',3'-dideoxycytidine) in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex. Am J Med. 1990;88(suppl 5B):20S-23S. PUBMED
111. Mann JM, Chin J, Piot P, Quinn T. The international epidemiology of AIDS. Sci Am. 1988;259:82-89. PUBMED
112. 1991 World Health Organization Statistics Annual. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1992:30-31.
113. Roper W. HIV epidemic. Bull N Y Acad Med. 1992;68:207-212. PUBMED
114. Selik RM, Chu SY, Buehler JW. HIV infection as leading cause of death among young adults in US cities and states. JAMA. 1993;269:2991-2994. FREE FULL TEXT