

ORIGINAL ARTICLE 

Year : 2014  Volume
: 2
 Issue : 1  Page : 2328 

Stature estimation using right digits and palm length in IGBO population, Nigeria
Ekezie Jervas^{1}, Anibeze Chike Ikechukwu Patrick^{2}, Akpuaka Frank Chinedu^{2}, Anyanwu Godson Emeka^{3}, Onwukamuche Chikwado Kingsely^{4}, Uloneme Godwill Chinedu^{5}
^{1} Department of Prosthesis and Orthopaedic Technology, School of Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria ^{2} Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria ^{3} Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria ^{4} Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trauma Unit, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria ^{5} Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Date of Web Publication  27Oct2014 
Correspondence Address: Ekezie Jervas Department of Prosthesis and Orthopaedic Technology, School of Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 1526 Owerri Nigeria
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None  Check 
DOI: 10.4103/23157992.143405
Introduction: Estimation of stature is an important anthropometric tool which helps in the identification of an individual. The dimensions of the hand have been used for the determination of age, sex, and stature of an individual. Materials and Methods: The present study examines the relationship between stature and hand dimensions of a unique ethnic group in Nigeria, the Igbos. Stature (Y), Palm length (PL), hand breath (HB), first digit length (1 ^{st} DL), second digit length (2 ^{nd} DL), third digit length (3 ^{rd} DL), fourth digit lengths (4 ^{th} DL) and fifth digit length (5 ^{th} DL) of 211 subjects comprising 123 females and 88 males (age range 1645 years) were measured after obtaining an informed consent. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results: Sex differences were found to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) for all the measurements. Linear and multiple regression equations for stature estimation were constructed using the aforementioned variables and multiplication factors were computed. The highest correlation coefficient between stature and PL provides the highest reliability and accuracy in estimating stature of unknown gender, while that of 2 ^{nd} DL provides that of the males specifically. Conclusion: Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by using linear regression in both gender put together as well as in the females while multiple regression was most accurate for estimate of stature in the males. Keywords: Anthropometer, digit length, palm length, sliding caliper, stature
How to cite this article: Jervas E, Ikechukwu Patrick AC, Chinedu AF, Emeka AG, Kingsely OC, Chinedu UG. Stature estimation using right digits and palm length in IGBO population, Nigeria. Ann Bioanthropol 2014;2:238 
How to cite this URL: Jervas E, Ikechukwu Patrick AC, Chinedu AF, Emeka AG, Kingsely OC, Chinedu UG. Stature estimation using right digits and palm length in IGBO population, Nigeria. Ann Bioanthropol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2018 Sep 6];2:238. Available from: http://www.bioanthrojournal.org/text.asp?2014/2/1/23/143405 
Introduction   
Body stature (height) has been reported as one of the most important and useful anthropometric parameters which determines the physical identity of an individual. Because of this, the reliability of stature estimation from upper extremity measurements ^{[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7]} as well as lower extremity ^{[8],[9],[10],[11],[12]} has been documented. The usefulness of this, is continually been applied in Forensic Medicine, Clinical practice, Anthropology, and other Medical Sciences. ^{[13],[14]}
Anatomically, stature which is a composite of linear dimensions of skull, vertebral column, pelvis and legs ^{[14]} and some parts of the foot, has been estimated in many populations using regression formulas derived from hand dimensions; ^{[15],[16]} also sex has been determined from hand dimensions ^{[3]} such derived formula are population specific.
Most of the time, upper and lower extremity segments (hands and feet) are recovered from the site of natural as well as manmade disasters.
In Nigeria, forensic anthropological data are scarce and there have been cases of manmade disasters (bombing, auto crash, and killings by unknown gunmen) and even flood in recent times. Because of this, there is need for anthropological research in each of the three major ethnic groups (Hausas, Igbos and Yorubas) in order to generate reference data that will help in the identification of individuals. In this present study, attention was paid to one of the major ethnic group (the Igbos) for the estimation of stature using hand dimensions.
Materials and Methods   
The study was based on a random sampling of 211 subjects (females, n = 123, and males, n = 88) aged 1645 years of the Igbo ethnic group of Nigeria, and attention was paid to stature estimation using right digits lengths and PL, after obtaining an informed consent.
Study Location and Duration   
The study was conducted in Imo State, Nigeria. The study covered a period of ten 10 months as follows: (i) Eight months for the field work. (ii) Two month for data analysis and interpretations.
Demographics: Information on age, sex, and state of origin was documented.
Exclusion criteria: Subjects who were not of Igbo origin were excluded from the study. Also subjects having any deformity or disease were not allowed to participate in the study.
Anthropometrics: Stature was measured and the following hand measurements were taken in centimeters using a sliding caliper:
Stature (Y) is the height measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using an Anthropometer with subjects standing without shoes with the heels held together, toes apart, and the head held in the Frankfort plane.
Palm length (PL) is the linear distance (cm) between the distal wrist crease and the distal end of the longest finger.
Hand breath (HB) is the linear distance between the middle projecting part of the thumb in adducted position and the corresponding part of the ulna side of the hand.
First digit length (1 ^{st} DL) is the linear distance (cm) between the proximal digital crease and the distal end of the first finger.
Second digit length (2 ^{nd} DL) is the linear distance (cm) between the proximal digital crease and the distal end of the second finger.
Third digit length (3 ^{rd} DL) is the linear distance (cm) between the proximal digital crease and the distal end of the third finger.
Fourth digit length (4 ^{th} DL) is the linear distance (cm) between the proximal digital crease and the distal end of the fourth finger.
Fifth digit length (5 ^{th} DL) is the linear distance (cm) between the proximal digital crease and the distal end of the fifth finger.
Results   
The anthropometric characteristics for both genders put together, females and males are shown in [Table 1]. We can see the standard deviation (SD), the mean, the maximum and minimum values of the anthropometric variables.  Table 1: Descriptive statistics of right hand dimensions in both genders put together females and males
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All the anthropometric dimensions measured directly showed statistically significant differences between females and males, P < 0.0001 with females having a lower mean value than males [Table 2].  Table 2: Comparison of difference of variable in females and males of right hand dimensions
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The correlation coefficient between Y and the right hand dimensions (PL, HB, 1 ^{st} DL, 2 ^{nd} DL, 3 ^{rd} DL, 4 ^{th} DL, and 5 ^{th} DL) in both genders was found to be statistically significant and positive, indicating a strong relationship between Y and right hand dimensions. The highest positive correlation was observed in palm length (PL), r = 0.610 while the least was observe in 1 ^{st} DL, r = 0.328 in both genders put together [Table 3]. For the females, the least significant correlation was observed in the hand breath r = 0.244 while the highest value was obtained in PL, r = 0.561. In the male population, significant and positive correlation was recorded between Y and right hand dimensions. The least significant correlation was observed in HB, r = 0.293 while the highest was observed in 2 ^{nd} DL, r = 0.561 [Table 3].  Table 3: Pearson correlation between Y with right hand dimensions in both genders, females and males
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The Constant, Regression coefficient and Variation explained (R ^{2} ) derived for each of the right hand measurements with Y are shown in [Table 4], for both genders put together and in [Table 5] for females and males respectively. The variation explained (R ^{2} × 100) showed that it ranges from 10.7%  37.2% in both genders. For the females, the variation explained ranged from 5.9%  31.5%. In the males, the variation explained ranged from 8.6%  36.1%. The variations explained are highly significant.  Table 4: Constant, regression coefficient and Variation explained (R2) of right hand variables with Y (dependent) variable in both genders
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 Table 5: Constant, regression coefficient and variation explained (R2) of right hand variables with Y (dependent) variable in females and males
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[Table 6] represent the values for R ^{2} , Adjusted R ^{2} , and SEE of the right hand dimensions in both genders together, females and males respectively.  Table 6: R2, adjusted R2, and SEE of right upper extremities variables in both genders, females and males
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The linear regression model for PL in both genders together was found to be the best model with the highest values for the coefficient of determination R ^{2} as 0.372, R ^{2} _{Adjusted} as 0.368 and multiple correlation coefficient R as 0.610 with a 7.152 Standard error of estimate (SEE) and this is better than the value gotten for the combination of 2 ^{nd} DL and 3 ^{rd} DL using multiple regression.
In the females, no multiple linear regression model was developed but the best simple linear regression model was developed using PL and this has the highest values for the coefficient of determination R ^{2} as 0.315, R ^{2} _{Adjusted} as 0.309 and multiple correlation coefficient R as 0.561 with a 6.402 SEE.
In the males, a multiple linear regression model was developed which was better than the ones developed using simple linear regression. This very model has the coefficient of determination R ^{2} as 0.361, R ^{2} _{Adjusted} as 0.346 and multiple correlation coefficient R as 0.610 with 5.9318 SEE; but the best simple linear regression model was developed using 2 ^{nd} DL and this has highest values for the coefficient of determination R ^{2} as 0.314, R ^{2} Adjusted as 0.306 and multiple correlation coefficient R as 0.561 with a 6.108 SEE.
Using all possible simple and multiple regression analysis, the best multiple linear regression equation for both gender together is Y = 98.804 + 4.250 (2 ^{nd} DL) +4.850 (3 ^{rd} DL). For the females the best linear regression equation is Y = 90.970 + 3.851(PL) while the best multiple linear regression equation for the male is Y = 117.154 + 4.441 (2 ^{nd} DL) +2.864 (3 ^{rd} DL). Y could as well be estimated using other dimension of the right hand; the regression equations generated are also in [Table 7] and [Table 8].  Table 7: Regression equations for estimation of Y in both genders using right hand measurements
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 Table 8: Regression equations for estimation of Y in females and males using right hand measurements
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The mean predicted value of Y through the regression function was similar to the mean observed (actual) value; however the minimum and maximum value indicate that there were differences in the predicted and observed value; the minimum predicted value overestimates the minimum observed value in both genders together, females and males while the maximum predicted value underestimates the maximum observed value in both genders together, females as well as in the males [Table 9] and [Table 10].  Table 9: Minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviations of the predicted values of Y by regression functions with right hand measurements in both genders
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 Table 10: Minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviations of the predicted values of Y by regression functions using right hand measurements in females and males
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Discussion   
Seven right hand dimensions including Y of the subjects were taken. The prediction function was derived through linear regression and multiple regressions for each of the measurement with Y, for the general population and for males and females separately.
In this study, the mean Y and age for the population under study is 167.55 ± 9.00 cm and 23.58 ± 4.95 yr respectively. While the minimum and maximum Y is 149.00 cm and 190.00 cm respectively. The mean Y and age for the female and male subjects are 163.17 ± 7.64 cm, 23.74 ± 5.36 years, and 173.66 ± 7.30 cm and 23.35 ± 4.34 years respectively.
In sexing the right hand parameters, all the variables were highly significant (P < 0.0001). These values were higher in the males than in the females.
The estimation of a living Y could be made using the various dimensions of the right hand but differences between populations must be considered before the application of these findings.
The findings of the present study indicate that the correlation r between Y and right hand measurements were significant for PL, HB, 1 ^{st} DL, 2 ^{nd} DL, 3 ^{rd} DL, 4 ^{th} DL, and 5 ^{th} DL in both genders put together; the highest correlation r between the dependent variable (Y) and the independent variable, (PL), in both gender was 0.610 (P < 0.0001). In the females' right hand, the correlation r between the dependent variable (Y) and the explanatory variables was significant for PL, HB, 1 ^{st} DL, 2 ^{nd} DL, 3 ^{rd} DL, 4 ^{th} DL, and DL 5 ^{th} DL. The highest correlation was observed between the dependent variable and (PL), r = 0.561 (P < 0.0001) while the least correlation was indicated by (HB), r = 0.244.
In the males, the study revealed that the correlation r between the dependent variable and the explanatory variable of the right hand dimensions (PL, HB, 1 ^{st} DL, 2 ^{nd} DL, 3 ^{rd} DL, 4 ^{th} DL, and 5 ^{th} DL) was significant. The highest correlation between the dependent variable and the explanatory variable of right hand was seen in 2 ^{nd} DL, r = 0.561 (P < 0.0001) while the least was 0.293 (P = 0.07) as seen in HB.
The correlation obtained in this study for PL has the same significant value (P < 0.0001) for hand length in a study conducted by, ^{[17]} in which stature estimation was based on hand length and foot length of adults 155 Turks.
This present study shows that the PL either obtained from both gender put together or from the female, is a veritable dimension in estimation of Y of the Igbos because the Pearson's correlation coefficient 'r' obtained was the heights amongst that obtained for the other hand segments (HB, 1 ^{st} DL, 2 ^{nd} DL, 3 ^{rd} DL, 4 ^{th} , and DL 5 ^{th} DL).
In support of this finding is the estimation of Y carried out by. ^{[6]} The purpose of their study was to analyze the anthropometric relationships between dimensions of the upper extremity and body height. In their study of Turks residing in Istanbul, Turkey, 202 middle class males and 108 middle class females were sampled and variables such as HL, forearm length and upper arm length were measured for analyses. They suggested that the estimation of a living Y could be made using the various dimensions of the upper limb while also stipulating that differences between populations must be considered before the application of their findings. ^{[18]} Investigated the relationship between personal Y and HL among a group of male and female of Sri Lankan adults and to derive a linear regression formula between the HL and height of the subjects. The result of the study showed positive correlation between height and HL in both sexes with significant difference. In conclusion, they suggested that HL provides a precise means of estimating the Y of an unknown individual. ^{[16]} Studied 200 subjects (150 males and 50 females) aged between 2030 years from Delhi city. They found that Y could be estimated better with the index finger in both males and females. When we compare our result with their findings, we observed that Y could be estimated better with PL in both gender put together as well as in the females. The 2 ^{nd} digit was the best to estimate Y in the males but the multiple regression analysis gave a better result when the second and third digits were combined. For the females, the SEE gotten was comparable for all the digits in this study.
The multiplication factor was calculated and the accuracy of the estimated height was checked by comparison with the actual (observed) Y. Similarity of the results indicates that the PL and digit length provides an accurate and reliable means for estimation of Y of mutilated body of an unknown individual.
Acknowledgment   
The authors wish to thank the subjects who participated in the study. We also wish to express our sincere gratitude to our research assistant for making this work a reality.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10]
